In various articles I have discussed the historic reasons for the inclusion of the Electoral College process in presidential elections, citing specific reasons the Founding Fathers, soon after gaining American independence from the British Empire and experiencing the deficiencies of the Articles of Confederation, finally framed a Constitutional Republic at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787. The founders chose this form of government for the United States rather than a simple majoritarian democracy.
The study of the nature of reality leads to the Medieval argument (conflict) between Realists and Nominalists. I will defer further discussion on that controversy for now, and instead, deal with more contemporary philosophies.
Pragmatism or Idealism
In Part I of this essay, we discussed the terms Liberty and Equality in accordance with Natural Rights theory and Constitutional governance, and then we summarized the ten planks of Karl Marx's 1948 Communist Manifesto. We showed how our Constitutional Republic has been eroded toward a Social[ist] Democracy by the infiltration of those Marxist planks in our polity.
The Civil War's immediate impact was felt mostly in America. It ended slavery, preserved the union, and in time reaffirmed the natural rights of man first proclaimed distinctly by the English physician-philosopher, John Locke (1632-1704). Locke is perhaps the foremost proponent of individual rights in the history of Anglo-American jurisprudence. He wrote that all human beings were equal and free to pursue "life, health, liberty and possessions." He influenced our Founding Fathers immensely: